LUNG CANCER

LUNG CANCER

It is of two types:

  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),
  • and Small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
NSCLC:
  • Adenocarcinoma: It is the most common form of NSCLC. It is usually found in the periphery of the lung.
  • Squamous Cell: It is usually found in the central part of the lung.
SCLC: SCLC contributes nearly 15-20 per cent of lung cancer cases. It spreads and grows faster than NSCLC. It is usually found in the central part of lung. Symptoms Of Lung Cancer: Basically, the symptoms of both the type NSCLC and SCLC are same. The common symptoms are:
  • A very worsen cough
  • Blood in cough or phlegm
  • Pain chest during cough, laughing or taking a deep breath
  • Hoarseness
  • Breath shortness
  • Wheezing is pretty common
  • Weakness and Fatigue
Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis are also common. But when cancer spreads, other symptoms may arise such as: Lymph nodes: Lumps can arise especially in the neck or collarbone. Pain in bones, more importantly in the back, ribs and hips. Brain problems such as headache, balance problems, dizziness, along with the numbness in arms and legs. Liver problems can also arise like yellowing of skin and eyes. If you are suffering from any of above-mentioned cancer then immediately consult a doctor. In the case, it seems a lung-cancer problem then you should consult a medical oncologist, a specialist in treating cancers. Nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, seizures can also be found. If you are looking for lung cancer treatment just search “oncologist near me” or phrases like “Best oncologist in Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad” or the city where you live and go for the suitable results. Causes Of Lung Cancer : The major cause of lung cancer is smoking. In fact, about 90% of cases of lung cancer is because of smoking tobacco. Active smokers have nearly 20 times higher risk than non-smokers and Passive smokers have 9 times higher risks compare to non-smokers. SCLC is totally associated with heavy smoking. Exposure to radioactive materials such as radon is also a major cause. Lung Cancer Stages: There are 4 main stages in lung cancer which depends on where cancer has been spread. The stages begin from the only lung to spreading in both the lungs. Investigations For Lung Cancer:  Treatment: Molecular testing or genetic testing. Staging: CECT chest + abdomen, PETCT, MRI brain, Mediastinoscopy, EBUS. Diagnosis: Biopsy With IHC or Pleural fluid (fluid around the lungs) cytology and Cellblock. Treatment: Molecular testing or genetic testing. All investigations are advised after seeing patient’s general condition, clinical presentation and relevant investigations. The investigation should be done as per the advice of oncologist. Lung Cancer Stages: There are 4 main stages in lung cancer which depends on where cancer has been spread. The stages begin from the only lung to spreading in both the lungs.  Lung Cancer Treatment:  Stage 1: Surgery
  • Stage II, III: A combination of chemotherapy+ surgery /Radiotherapy or all 3 or any single modality as per disease status and the decision of tumour board.
  • In Stage IV: Maximum number of patients present in stage IV.
This stage is primarily treated by a Medical Oncologist, sometimes Radiotherapy or surgery may help. After the complete diagnosis, the medical oncologist will set up the treatment. A medical oncologist is specialist in using drugs, such as immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, target therapy, and chemotherapy. ChemoTherapy Chemotherapy shrinks the tumour enough to make it easier to remove with surgery, which also increases the effectiveness of radiation and destroys the hidden cancer cells within minimum possible time. Targeted Therapy Targeted therapies particularly attack the cancer cells by attaching or blocking the targets which appear on the surface of those cells. Generally, people who are suffering from advanced lung cancer with certain molecular biomarkers may receive treatment with only a targeted drug or either with combination with chemotherapy. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is well-tolerated, with minimal side-effects because of its mechanism. It blocks the effect of the tumor on our own immune system as a treatment against cancer.